Tale of Bangladesh

A Balanced Analysis

Dr. Hamid Khan Almashriqi

This year Bangladesh (Previously known as East Pakistan) celebratedit’s 50th anniversary of independence on 16thDecember 2021. Although there were many ceremonies of independence from Bengalis around the world and the nation is celebrating it with full of jubilation and pride.
At the same time, it’s a very devastating time for us Pakistanis (Ex West Pakistan). In this article I am trying to discuss a few reasons and events behind the separation of East Pakistan. My basic aim in writing this is to understand narratives on both sides so intellectuals from both sides can openly study and acknowledge mistakes from both parties. As I believe with an open-minded discussion and studying is very much required to bring both brotherly countries close again, I always emphasize on the connection of history.

If we study about the history of creation of Pakistan in 1947, the role of Bengalis at that time was inevitable. Muslim league was founded in Dhaka, Bengal in 1906. And historical Lahore resolution “Pakistan Resolution” was also presented by “Lion of Bengal” Molvifazal-e-Haq. The prime minister of Pakistan from 1956 to 1957 Mr. HuseynShaheedSuhrawardy was also a Bengali barrister and very close to Quaid-e-AzamMuhammed Ali Jinnah. He also formed East Pakistan’s political party “Awami Muslim League” under the leadership of his son-in-law and founder of Bangladesh Mr. Sheikh MujiburRahman it became “ Awami League” only.
Before writing about Mujeebur Rahman. I would like to mention that in 1953 in a political gathering KhaksarTehrik founder and famous scholar Allama Inayat Ullah Khan Almashriqi warned the nation (East Pakistanis & West Pakistanis) about the possibility of separation of East Pakistan from the West within 20 years (From 1953 to 1973). Which exactly happened, Allama Mashriqi clearly said there are many reasons for the separation of East Pakistan such as
1- Geographic Separation
2- 1100 miles Indian Ocean travel
3- Language and No family interactions
4- Indian conspiracies
5- Corrupt politicians and elite
6- Poverty &less resources
Undoubtedly all these factors played a great role in the separation of East Pakistan. Not only Allama Almashriqi warned about the future rather he also gave a solution for that, which consisted of these points.
1- Govt. of Pakistan must plan (upto 25000 families) migration annually from both sides of the country (East and West) and arranged integrated marriages from east and west Pakistani families to avoid any kind of inferiority or superiority complexes & to Bring population of both Pakistan’s socially closer.
2- Demand for 30km road up to 1000km long safe passage or corridor through India from Lahore to Calcutta (India) to reach East Pakistan through a ground route and he even designed a very practical and possible by utilizing already existed route. He clearly gave roadmaps for utilizing population and natural resources from the sea to the ground to eliminate poverty of East Pakistan. He warned the establishment and politicians from both wings to be fair and helpful to the public like real public servants. He gave solution for all procedures with his mathematical calculations and scholarly wisdom but instead of listening to him. Political leadership&establishment at that time put AllamaAlmashriqi in jail for 3 years accusing him for false allegations.

While on the other hand distances between East and West Pakistan started increasing when Pakistan Govt. forcibly implemented Urdu language in Bengali offices and for government & Private documentations. Furthermore Speaking only in Urdu was mandatory. The false politically motive cases against former Prime Minister Mr. Suharwardy and his arrest caused further unrest in Bengalis. While leadership of party went into hands of Sheikh Mujeed-ur-Rahman. Who changed party name from Awami Muslim League to ‘Awami League’, after that Mujib-ur-Rahman started politics based on Bengali identity and ideology instead of his successor and father-in-law Mr. Suharwardey who was great follower of unity and two nation theory based on one most important commonality religious ideology.
Later on Mujib-Ur-Rahman started agitation against martial law of General Ayub Khan while at the same time Sheikh Mujib-Ur-Rahman and few Bengali origin senior Pakistan army officials were accused& arrested forplotting conspiracy against Pakistan and planning for separation of East Pakistan with Indian army& politician leadership.

This conspiracy and case is known as “Agartala conspiracy case” 34 army officers and Mujib-ur-Rahman was arrested for that and proceedings of the case were incomplete even after 3 years , While in 1969 Mujib-ur-Rahman was released without any charges, Mujib-ur-Rahman later after the creation of Bangladesh not only admitted the fact of meeting in “Agartala” rather he hailed those soldiers by than Pakistani army officers who were part of that meetings with Indians. Due to sentiments against army dictatorship and President Ayub Khan’s election against Miss Fatimah Jinnah. Due to such factors and others Bengalis gave full support to Mujib-ur-Rahman in 1970’s general elections and Awami League won 90%plus seats from East Pakistan which gave Mujib Ur Rehman overall majority in elections.
So it was clear the majority public wanted him to be the next prime minister, this was big victory of Awami League’s Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman. Which brought so many concerns for establishments of Pakistan at that time. Especially considering six points agenda presented by Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman prior to his arrest in 1966 which was very worrying for Pakistan’s unity. Just to remind, I will write a brief of those 6 points presented by Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman in 1966 in Lahore Pakistan.

1-East Pakistan provincial assembly will be based on Lahore resolution of 1940’sIn which all provinces have independent GOVTS.
2- The federal Govt. can only deal in foreign and Defense affairs rest of everything will be under control by provincial govt.
3- East Pakistan will have a separate currency and Central bank for East Pakistan will be separate from West Pakistan.
4- All power of taxation and revenue recovery will be handed to East Pakistan for its affairs.
5- For East Pakistan There will be separate accounts for foreign exchange and reserves without any interference from West Pakistan.
6- East Pakistan will establish its own paramilitary, militia or army under the control of East Pakistan premiere.
Clearly 3 out of these 6 points were not acceptable at allThese six points were opposed by all political leadership also.so these points were clearly indicating the intentions of Mujeeb-ur-Rahman.
After this victory in 1970’s elections, Mujib-ur-Rahmanforced Martial Law Govt. led by General Yahya Khan to call for national assembly session in Dhaka as per the constitution of Pakistan but West Pakistanis winning party leader Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto refused to accept the results of elections and boycotted any possibility of assembly session in Dhaka. So in that crucial hours of Pakistan’s history, While many believe that by giving power to Mujib-ur-Rahman being prime minister of Pakistan, the division of Pakistan could have been avoided while another school of thought believe that separation was inevitable as Mujib-ur-Rahman would have implemented his 6 points and country would have divided in two separate states anyway as leadership of East Pakistan had decided and were determined to get separation with the support of India. But if we analyze as neutral power should have been handed over to Sheikh Mujib acknowledging his landslide victory and even later if he would havebeen tried to implement his 6 points and creation of Bangladesh. Still than so much bloodshed and hatred and confusion between two brothers (Wings) would have been avoided.
Lets look into reality and propaganda about claims of atrocities by Pakistani army in Bangladesh. Since Bhutto stopped and boycott assembly session in Dhaka and gave slogan of “Udhar tum, Idhar hum” which meant “ You Rule in East We rule in west “ every day the distances between both wings started increasing too much. While on the other hand at the same time Indian supported and influenced mukti-bahini started militant separation movement and started killings of non-Bengalis in Bangladesh including Biharis who migrated in 1947 from India while from 25th March 1971 Pakistan army launched “Operation searchlight” to crack down against Mukti-Bahini andIndian guerilla commanders. No doubt during this period there were very sad and tragic incidents took place and there were claimed that West Pakistani soldiers are raping women and killing innocents.

In March’71 there wasbombardments from fighter jets in Dhaka which kill 100+ plus children adults and females. Pakistan army and airforce clearly denied this bombardment but intense propaganda and emotions against West Pakistan. Further riots erupted in all over East Pakistan. This fighter jet incident can be considered as last straw in situation reached to the point of no return in East Pakistan. Later on in 1974 an Indian pilot openly confessed that it was him, who did that bombardment by the orders of his most senior officer. We need to keep in mind that fire of mistrust and misunderstanding and hatred of each other didn’t stop after that bombardment by indian fighter jet. That’s how hybrid warfare works . I can prove that Pakistan has been victim of hybridwar and 4th&5th Generation for over 60 years. Unfortunately our leadership (political & Military) Could not made nation aware of that. And our enemies succeeded in their ill motives and missions.
There are many evidences of bravery of Pak soldiers and officers during operation searchlight in east Pakistan. But eventually due to lack of ration, Supply chain disconnections, Less numbers of available resources and pain of fighting against own brothers, Public sentiments against Pakistan army ended up with the completion of Indian conspiracy and resulted in surrender of Pakistan army. And after that, within 90 days Indian forces and mukti-bahimi members killed Thousands of non-bengali civilians and 100’s of thousands had to seek refuge in Indian Bihar in refugee camps where they are till this day after 50 years and waiting for the decision of their fate. Separation of Bangladesh is the biggest tragedy in the muslim world for many reasons.
On 9th Jan 1972 Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman was released from Pakistan and reached London. His press conferences and interviews with BBC and other media, were very shocking and full of accusations on the Pakistan army and government. While at the same time Sheikh Mujib Ur Rehaman Openly said “ Today my 25 years Dream is Completed” Which clearly explains his ideology of creating a separate country since 1947. Now Let’s discuss some of the main Allegations &accusationsand their reality. As fact checked from independent resources. If anyone want to challenge my figures or details in relations to that I am willing to provide them independent sources of information.
1) Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman in interview to BBC reporter said Pakistan army have killed over 3 million Bengalis in a genocide manner and intentions. While he was saying this, the reporter interrupted Mujib-ur-Rahman and said ‘sir, you were saying 300,000 (Three Hundred Thousand) off camera. This 3 million genocide figure isn’t reality and the world is not going to accept it. MrMujib said now I have said 3 million, let it be a 3 million genocide. And after this, Itbecame the official stance by Bangladesh Government. Which was not based on facts nor research rather it was just a slip of tongue from Mujib Ur Rehman during interview. That’s why when India & Bangladesh jointly tried their best to hold Pakistan army convicted for genocide in East Pakistan despite of all their efforts they couldn’t prove any genocide occurred in Bangladesh.
Similarly 2nd biggest accusation on Pakistan army was raping 300,000 Bengali women, again British Govt. held a detailed enquiry and investigation team went all over Bangladesh to interview maximum victims of rape and according to that report, instead of the claim of 250-300 thousand women being raped they could confirm only between 100-200 women who were really raped. Hence this propaganda also required correction in the historyThere’s no justification for even one rape and I fully condemn each and every incident but number needs to be correct. All these investigations were supervised by the Prime Minister of Great Britain Mr. Edward Heath.
Third biggest allegation is from the incident of March 1971, about the bombardment by a fighter jet on orphanage in Dhaka, which caused the killing of almost 170 children and adults. Pak airforce jet was accused of that. Which was proven false since the Indian pilot confessed himself in 1974. Indian army, Govt, Mukti-bahini and Awami League all intentionally accused Pak army, Air force and West Pakistani Govt. for that but despite of repeatedly refusal of such an attack by Pak airforce and army, still Mukti-bahini initiated armed gruella war against Pakistan with the support of India. While as the matter of fact- 1974 it was disclosed through an interview of an Indian airforce pilot that he was the one who did the bombardment on that day and it was commanded by the most senior rank of the Indian airforce and leadership.
Fourth blame on Pak army is about the killings of over 200 Bengali intellectuals on the night or prior of surrender on 16th December. It is still a mystery to identify what exactly happened on those nights of the 14th & 15th December 1971. Pakistan Army Major General Farman Ali was accused of that incident while General Farman Ali always denied these accusations. He had been appeared before two inquiry commissions from UK and Hamood-ur-Rahman commission Pakistan as well and it was never proved that General Farman or any officer planned or did any massacre of such level.
According to some interesting independent reports, all proves and possibility of this massacre hints towards Indian army involvement in this. Hence by 12th December Pakistan army in Dhaka had lost all control over Dhaka and Pakistan army was limited to their barricades while Indian army was in control of Dhaka and moving around the entire city in armed vehicles. There are some eye-witnesseswho had seen some of those intellectuals taken in Indian army vehicles and into custody. That’s why still the entire incident is disputed but if you think into probabilities of the situation, It clearly points all fingers towards Indian forces. Since we have seen this technique as state policy to kill brains & intellectuals of Kashmiris also in Indian illegally occupied Kashmir.
5th biggest claim is surrender of 90 thousand Pakistan army soldiers it is again false while as the matter of fact there were only 25,000 plus Pak army soldiers and officers deployed in East Pakistan were from West Pakistan and arrested (POW) Number is 20000 around, while rest of 80000 personnel were Govt. or state employees who were from West Pakistan.
The basic aim to write this article to do an effort to bring both brotherly countries (wings) together with exposing conspiracy from enemies. There’s no doubt there were incidents of raping women by Pakistan army and there were unjust killings of East Pakistanis (Bengalis) similarly there were killings of Biharis and West Pakistanis also by Mukti-bahini volunteers.
To move forward both sides, leadership must come forward and apologize to each other especially Pakistan leadership must take initiative for a national apology from Bangladesh to move forward being big brother, and to calm their wounds. I believe we have wasted our 2 generations since then in 50 years with distances from each other. If both countries leadership takes step to come close again, no doubt both countries public would come close as well. And this is what our enemy doesn’t want from us. When i see support for Pak cricket team, and stars like ShahidAfridi on grounds like Dhaka and Chittagong it gives me a hope and encouragement that now this is the time to change history.
Under the latest geopolitical situation of the region, it’s very important and clearly ideal to bring both Pakistan and Bangladesh together. Pakistan is already friends with China, now Bangladesh is also coming closer to China. By signing many trade agreements, While reaction to that USA have already imposed sanctions to Bangladesh. While at the same time manypeople in Bangladesh are also talking against Indian influence and interference in internal affairs of Bangladesh. There’s a strong demand to current Bangladesh government to come out of this Indian colony impression. If we calculate figures of sub-continent 240 million Muslims are in India, which is 20% of the population living as minority. And further adding 250 million Muslims in Bangladesh while adding 220 million muslims in Pakistan, sums a total of 710 million plus Muslims in sub-continents.
And the total population of Hindus in sub-continent 820 million, out of that about 400 million are from scheduled casts (Dilates, shudders, etc.) So if we take out that figure actual Hindus remaining 420 million which is about 200 million less than muslim population. This is what our enemy knows that’s why they don’t want muslims of sub-continents unite as together.As they will loose their majority and supremacy of Indian Hindus in the region. I strongly urge through this article to the muslims of sub-continents to do their efforts and lets bring muslims closer and change the fate of the region. All muslim disputes of the region, such as Kashmir will automatically be resolves being united. I request to all educated, sincere intellectuals from both countries to come forward and play their role to eliminate these distances and talk about solidarity and friendship between both distanced brothers. We need to prove that Two Nation theory was true and will always exist in Subcontinent to fight against Indian dominance in the region.

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